X-RD (X-ray Diffraction)

X-ray powder diffraction technique is commonly used for phase identification of crystalline materials. it also detects the unit cell dimension, measurement of sample purity, identification of fine grained minerals. With specialised techniques, XRD can be used to find crystal structures using Rietveld refinement, make textural measurement, to measure modal amount of minerals.


X-ray diffraction uses single beam to examine the specimen by continuously changing the angle of the beam. X-rays are generated by cathode in X-ray tube, travels to the sample through incident-beam optics where it is filtered to produce monochromatic radiation and further it is collimated before it is directed to the sample. The angle between X-ray and sample is maintained θ, whereas angle between incident beam and detector is 2θ. The basic principal of diffractometer is to detect x rays diffracted from the sample and record intensity of diffracted rayss. The x-ray diffraction generates pattern as per the recorded rays in XRD analysis. This recorded pattern is compared with the reference pattern which allows to identify crystalline form. n instrument can be operated in two ways:

* tube is fixed, the sample and the detector rotates (THETA : 2-THETA arrangement)
* sample is fixed and the tube and the detector rotates (THETA:THETA arrangement)

Machine Capability/Specificaion

* Make and Model:Zeiss, GeminiSEM 300

X-RAY Source:

* X-ray generator with 3kW capacity.
* Stability :0.05 % per 10 % mains variation.

X-Ray Tube

* one line and one point focus.
* Auto recognition facility of type of focus under usage and anode material


* Angular accuracy :+ 0.0050
* Angular reproducibility:+ 0.00020
* 2θ movement range :-30 – 1400 2θ
* Step size :+0.00010
* Goniometer linearity (2 theta) : 0.01deg

Application Works